Executive meets with employees working in science at latest Listening Session

King County has hundreds of employees working in the sciences on some of our region’s biggest challenges, from protecting fish habitat to helping people manage and overcome diseases, to keeping waterways clean, and King County Executive Dow Constantine recently met with six of them to learn more about their work and experiences.

At his August 6 Employee Listening Session, Executive Constantine had a wide-ranging conversation with Lara Whitely Binder, Climate Preparedness Specialist from the Department of Natural Resources and Parks (DNRP); Ecotoxicologist Carly Greyell and Water Quality Planner Josh Kubo from Water and Land Resources Division; Environmental Scientist Nina Wester and Process Control Supervisor Rick Butler from Wastewater Treatment Division; and Meaghan Munn, an Epidemiologist with Public Health – Seattle & King County.

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“I’ve been hosting these listening sessions for a while now with different groups of employees from different areas and fields with different perspectives, and they’re always really interesting and informative,” Executive Constantine said. “This one is especially timely for me right now when we look at some of the challenges facing our environment locally, whether it’s the health of orcas or salmon, the impacts of pollution on our waterways, or the greater intensity and frequency of weather events.”

Munn, who works on King County’s Hepatitis C Test and Cure Program funded by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), talked about her work to help people infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV).

“The new HCV drugs are 95 percent effective and can actually cure Hepatitis C, which is a pretty major breakthrough,” Munn said. “Our project is to get people connected to care and get them treated.”

Greyell, who works in the Toxicology and Contamination Assessment Group, spoke about some of the challenges in tackling polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, that enter local waterways.

“I focus a lot on PCBs because that’s the contaminant that is big in the Duwamish and it’s really important for the orcas as well, as they’re endocrine disrupters,” she said. “We do a lot of monitoring to see which tributaries we might be getting the most PCBs from, and it’s definitely coming from the stormwater, it’s runoff from the land in certain areas. We do have a lot of information about that but it’s not in our jurisdiction; obviously they’re the places that are most developed and we do our work in unincorporated King County.”

Kubo, a Fish Biologist, talked about some of the difficulties facing Puget Sound’s salmon population.

“We’re producing a lot of fish out of the Puget Sound, a lot of hatchery fish and some decent wild fish,” he said. “However their survival from when they leave the Sound to when they come back is very, very low.”

He said that food web issues, contaminants, and a well-supported theory that the Upper Pacific is reaching carrying capacity for salmon are just some of the reasons for this struggle.

“Across all systems, from south Sound to north Sound, we’re having issues with making sure that the juveniles come back as adults, and hatchery fish are surviving quite a bit less than wild fish. So even if we were to produce a ton of hatchery fish, we might not get a lot of adults back.”

The group also talked about the current national environment around science, data and facts.

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“Do you have any thoughts, stepping away from your day-to-day work, about the role of science in government and policy making, and the odd situation we find ourselves in having to defend the scientific method against political orthodoxy?” Executive Constantine asked the group.

“I feel lucky to be in a government context that supports science and the integration of science into natural resource management or any kind of resource management,” Kubo said. “At this level I feel that science is not only valued but there’s a continued push to produce good science because it will get utilized and it will get integrated. There’s almost a sigh of relief that you still get to do science.”


Learn more

The Point Williams Buoy

On March 29, the crew of SoundGuardian, King County’s marine research vessel, re-deployed a water quality buoy that got loose earlier in the month at Point Williams, off Lincoln Park in West Seattle. In this video, watch Jim Devereaux, Bob Kruger, Houston Flores, and Christopher Barnes from the King County Environmental Laboratory re-anchor the buoy.

The Point Williams buoy is one of four automated, high-frequency data collection systems used by King County in marine waters and is the only floating platform — with the other three attached to piers or docks at Seattle Aquarium and inner and outer Quartermaster Harbor on Vashon-Maury Island. King County began using automated systems back in 2008 but the Point Williams buoy has been at the current location since 2013.

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Sensors are used to continually collect data that is used to monitor water quality in Puget Sound.

The buoy functions as a platform to suspend multiple instruments into the top of the water column to take measurements that determine water quality in the Central Puget Sound basin.  Automated, water quality data collection allows measurements to be taken every 15 minutes of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. The result is improved information to determine variability on a weekly, even daily,  basis compared to traditional water quality measurements that are typically measured every two to four weeks.

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The sensors are attached to the buoy which acts as a floating platform.

The data are transmitted via a cellular modem to a cloud data collection service, then transferred to the King County mooring data website where it can be viewed or downloaded within 30 minutes of data collection. Data undergo automatic quality checks to assess for issues in real-time as well as semi-annually by a data manager.

The data are used to characterize Puget Sound water conditions on numerous time scales (e.g., daily, seasonal, annual, inter-annual) and used for status and trends analysis, to compare with data from other locations in Puget Sound to assess spatial differences, populate or validate numerical Puget Sound models, and provide data for management decisions. The data from this water quality monitoring system are also sent to Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems to be included in a larger marine waters data collection network.

Check out more cool stuff from @KCEnviroLab on Instagram.

Long-constrained, the lower White River will soon have more room to move

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Stephanie Shelton describes some of the ecological features of the Countyline project to colleagues.

When the region’s heavy rains start this fall, a rising White River will breach areas excavated from a levee that has held it in place for nearly a century and flow into its adjacent floodplain. Cameras mounted on cottonwood trees and engineered log structures will capture the moment, a historic one for both the river and King County.

The Countyline Levee Setback Project is the biggest one to date for the King County Flood Control District, a $24 million project that set back 6,000 lineal feet of levee and reconnected the river to 121 acres of its historical floodplain. Coupled with a future project on the river’s right bank, it is expected to provide far better flood protection to people who live and work in the City of Pacific, where a flood in 2009 served as a wake-up call to the hazards the constrained river posed to the surrounding community.

The project also marks a new chapter for the river’s ecological health. The White River has been a highly manipulated system – straightjacketed by rock and concrete, cut off from its historical channels, and accumulating sediment at a rapid rate – a situation that has led to flooding and decimated salmon habitat. Once it breaches the excavated levee, the river will begin to form braided channels and backwater habitat where juvenile salmon can linger before moving downstream and into Puget Sound. Beavers are expected to move in. Birds – from ospreys and eagles to warblers and flycatchers – will find habitat.

Stephanie Shelton, a senior ecologist in the Rivers section, said she and her colleagues will keep a close eye on salmon runs. The White River is the only one in King County to host spring-run Chinook, listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. It’s a highly imperiled population, with less than 10 percent of its historical White River population remaining. “They’re on the brink of extinction,” she said.

Restoring habitat for spring-run chinook, she added, has side benefits: Work done to protect them will provide important habitat to a number of other fish and wildlife species. “That’s why this is such an important project,” she said.

Biologists often focus on what they call “limiting factors” – those environmental factors that limit a species’ population size – and when it comes to salmon, a big limiting factor is habitat for juvenile fish to rear and feed. Many salmon species spend up to 90 percent of their lives in marine waters, but they rely on freshwater habitat during two key junctures in their complex life cycles – when mature adults spawn and when salmon fry emerge from eggs and out-migrate as juveniles. And that freshwater habitat has to be just right, Stephanie explained.

“After they emerge, young salmon can’t hang out in the fast-moving mainstem of a channel. To make sure they don’t get swept away, they need off-channel edge habitats, slow-moving refuge areas and food resources,” she said. Floodplains and side channels used to be more abundant. “But the way we’ve managed our rivers in the post-settlement environment, we’ve eliminated that kind of habitat. We’ve managed rivers for conveyance, not ecosystems.”

Construction crews have notched the existing levee in preparation for this fall’s higher water. When the rains come and the waters rise, about 50 percent of the river’s flow along the Countyline reach is expected to move into a new channel that will wend across the floodplain. And for the first time in a century, the lower White will again have slow-moving freshwater habitat that Stephanie and her colleagues expect will begin to support a fuller and more complex web of life as well as larger salmon recovery efforts in the watershed.

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Crews electro-fish along a side channel so that fish can be removed prior to in-water work.

This winter and for the next several years, Stephanie and a multi-disciplinary team of other ecologists, geomorphologists, and engineers will monitor the results. They’ll measure the reduction in flood hazards provided by the restoration project. They’ll see what the new channels do over time – how many braids are formed and the different kinds of aquatic habitat created as a result. They’ll want to see how many of the native plants they’re installing – 50,000 stems altogether – survive and how vegetative species establish and change over time.

And they’ll count fish. Baseline surveys were conducted starting in 2011. Fish biologists will periodically return over the next 10 years and seine for fish along the Countyline stretch, evaluating the results and learning how young salmon are using the new channels.

“The monitoring will be invaluable,” Stephanie said. “Restoration projects often don’t include this component, and thus it’s hard to know how successful a project is. We’re going to be out there, on the ground, figuring out how the river changes, the different kinds of habitat that result and what that means for fish and wildlife.”

“That’s the exciting part,” she added. “And it’s so important, since our results will inform future designs.”

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Earlier this year, Stephanie watches as the old levee — prior to excavation — is inundated from winter flows.

When it comes to the White River, geology matters

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Senior Engineer Chris Brummer points out features of the White River and its surrounding areas during a tour with other Rivers staff members this summer.

Managers in the Rivers section don’t usually talk about what happened 5,600 years ago when discussing their current projects, but when it comes to the White River along the border between King and Pierce counties, it’s an important starting point.

Before the Osceola Mudflow spilled from the flanks of Mount Rainier, the Kent and Pacific valleys where under water, and the White was a short, steep river that cascaded off the mountain and into Puget Sound near where Auburn now sits.

The Osceola Mudflow – Rainier’s largest known lahar – and smaller lahars that followed profoundly changed the landscape, leaving in their wake an alluvial plain of glacial debris and pushing Puget Sound’s shoreline some 30 miles north to present-day Elliott Bay. The White River changed with it, meandering through this newly created valley before joining other flows and heading north to Puget Sound.

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The White River is slowly filling up with sediment, leading to more frequent flooding in the City of Pacific.

That geologic history is relevant today, according to Chris Brummer, a senior engineer and geomorphologist in the Rivers section, because of the way the mudflow altered both the region’s topography and its human history. Over time, the fertile valley the lahars created became home first to indigenous people and then to European settlers, and today this populous region in south King County is dotted by towns and cities, farms and industries.

Add to this scenario another geologic phenomenon – channel aggradation. Those last several miles of the White River – the ones that didn’t exist before the lahars – are rapidly filling with sediment, making it shallower and thus much more prone to flooding with each passing year. The result, Chris said, “is an urgent situation.”

Chris is the project manager for the Countyline Levee Setback Project, the largest flood management project undertaken to date by the King County Flood Control District. The project, spanning 1.3 miles of river on the eastern edge of the City of Pacific and extending across the King to Pierce county boundary, reconnects the White River to 121 acres of its historical floodplain. It was substantially completed this fall – and none too soon.

According to investigations by King County and its consultants, the flood capacity of the White along the Countyline Reach has decreased dramatically over the last four decades, when dredging ceased due to environmental laws. Before the 1980s, the channel’s capacity was 25,000 cubic feet per second (CFS); now, it’s 6,000 CFS. Left alone, the channel would likely completely fill with sediment at the King-Pierce county line in little more than a decade and seek a new route through Pacific and Sumner.

The river’s sedimentation at Countyline is due in part to its topography. The White hits its “inflection point” near the City of Pacific, where the slope of the river decreases significantly. As a result, Chris said, the river at Countyline “loses a lot of its energy to transport sediment and starts depositing gravel and sand at a rapid rate.”

Sedimentation is also due to its source. The White’s headwaters are on an active volcano – a glacier-covered mountain that rises 6,000 feet above nearby peaks. Mount Rainier catches more weather, as a result. Its glaciers move rock and dirt, constantly scouring the steep flanks. And those rocks, like rocks on most volcanoes, are weak and crumbly.

The result, Chris said, is a lot of sediment. “Rivers draining active volcanoes in the Cascades produce four times more sediment than rivers that don’t.”

The river has been filling up with sediment for centuries, of course, and the White has a long history of flooding, as well as a long history of human intervention to try to stop the flooding.

Early on, farmers dynamited the riverbanks to divert floodwaters away from their properties. They reengineered the river, forcing it into what was then called the Stuck River. King and Pierce counties formed the Inter-County River Improvement Commission to jointly manage flooding along the White, Stuck and Puyallup rivers, building bulkheads, revetments, dikes, groins and other barriers.

And they dredged.

According to a report prepared by Terry Butler, a former Rivers Section geomorphologist, during the last century alone a million cubic yards of river channel sediments were removed from the Countyline Reach. Asked to translate, Chris said that’s about 50,000 dump trucks worth of sand, gravel and silt.

The impact on salmon populations and river health from all that dredging was profound, and in the 1980s, environmental laws brought an end to the dredging. That’s why Chris and his colleagues began working to find a new way to address the river’s propensity to fill up with gravel and rock.

And they did so with a deep appreciation of the river’s geologic history. During a tour this summer, Chris stood next to the levee in the middle of the project site, not far from the busy East Valley Highway, and noted with a smile that the group was standing on the former shoreline of Puget Sound.

“The processes that have led to this situation are still in place,” he told them. “We’ll still get the same amount of sedimentation. But it’ll spread out over 1,000 feet, rather than 150 feet. And that’s going to make a huge difference.”

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The White River near the Countyline Project.

A big day for the White River

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Josh Baldi, Water and Land Resources Division director, looks at one of the posters at the event with Michelle Clark, Flood Control District executive director.

This is the first of three stories about the Countyline Levee Setback Project. Next week, we’ll post a story about the White River’s geology and a second one about the ecological implications of the setback project.

For nearly two decades, staff members in the Rivers section have been discussing the need to create more room for the sediment-rich White River to meander, a project that would provide much-needed flood protection for the neighboring City of Pacific and habitat restoration for imperiled salmon.

This week, that dream became a reality when the Countyline Levee Setback Project reached substantial completion.

And on Tuesday, under a vibrantly blue sky, the King County Flood Control District and staff from Rivers celebrated the milestone, holding a news conference on top of the new setback levee. Spread behind them was the river’s historical floodplain, a 121-acre swath that will inundate this fall when the rains come and the river rises. In the near-distance, a crew planted native trees and shrubs for the new riparian buffer. A bald eagle occasionally flew overhead.

“It’s hard to think about flooding on a day like today,” Supervisor Reagan Dunn, who chairs the Flood Control District, told several reporters. “But we’ve got to be ready for it.” Especially here at Countyline, he added, where the glacially fed White River is rapidly filling up.

Noting that the project provides both flood protection and salmon habitat, Supervisor Pete von Reichbauer, whose district encompasses Pacific, called the project “a win-win for the community and this incredible region.” Pacific Mayor Leanne Guier beamed when she took to the podium. “This is an extremely exciting day for those of us who live in Pacific,” she said.

Jason Lehto, a habitat restoration specialist with NOAA who spoke on behalf of the trustees for the Thea Foss Waterway Natural Resource Damage Assessment, also hailed the project: “We’re proud to be working on a project that is protecting lives and property. But it also has substantial benefits to salmon and other fish and wildlife species.”

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The project team enjoys a sweet moment at the end of the event. From left, Jeanne Stypula, Chris Brummer, Monica Walker and Stephanie Shelton.

The project was no small feat, in part because it marks the largest Flood Control District project to date: 4,500 linear feet of levee were removed and a new 6,000-foot setback levee was constructed. A 5,000-foot wood structure called a bio-revetment and several engineered logjams were installed to protect the new levee from erosive flood flows. Crews are currently planting 50,000 native plants and shrubs, revegetating an 18-acre riparian buffer – the final piece of this complex puzzle.

But it wasn’t only the scale of the project that made it challenging. The Countyline project was also jurisdictionally complex, involving two counties, federal agencies, two tribal governments and several funding partners. The total cost was $24 million: $17.9 million came from the Flood Control District; $4.8 million from the Thea Foss Waterway Natural Resource Damage Assessment contributing parties; $823,000 from the state Salmon Recovery Funding Board and $500,000 from Pierce County.

Jeanne Stypula, managing engineer in Rivers, first started thinking about a setback levee some 20 years ago. Tuesday, after the crowds had dispersed, she smiled at her team. “This has been a really good day,” she said.


Watch the news event video.

Salmon spawning at Rainbow Bend

Underwater video of spawning salmon at Rainbow Bend. from King County DNRP on Vimeo.

 

The Rainbow Bend Levee Removal and Floodplain Reconnection Project, completed in 2013, was a multi-partner, multi-objective effort to reduce flood risks and improve salmon habitat in the lower Cedar River. The work was done in two phases spanning more than ten years.

In the first phase, King County successfully helped move residents out of harm’s way. Single-family homes and a mobile-home park were threatened with chronic flooding, requiring emergency response and evacuations. King County purchased the flood-prone properties, helped residents relocate to homes in safer places, and then removed the unoccupied dwellings, creating a 40-acre open space.

In the second phase of the project the levee was removed, four logjams were constructed, two new channels and backwater habitat were created, and tens of thousands of native plants were installed. The goal was to improve salmon habitat and floodplain functions and diminish long-term maintenance costs along the trail.

Watch the project video: Restoring Rainbow Bend — Good for People and Fish

Large-scale, multi-objective projects like Rainbow Bend, where old levees are removed or set back, are central to restoring the viability of threatened Puget Sound fall Chinook salmon. At the same time, these projects can reduce flood risks to residents and infrastructure. Following a multi-objective project such as this, effectiveness monitoring is critical to improving the design and outcomes of future projects.

A comprehensive, 10-year monitoring project is underway to determine whether project goals and objectives are being met effectively and efficiently. The monitoring work is focused on changes in the river, large wood, fish habitat, and plant performance. Early results indicate that the project is working well. The channel is migrating again and the river is becoming more complex and suitable for juvenile and adult salmon. The number of juvenile Chinook salmon that can reside in the project site has increased. Adult salmon are spawning at high densities in the largest of the two side channels.

One of the ways King County monitors fish use in project sites is through the use of underwater video. Watching fish underwater allows us to directly observe how they are using their habitat and interacting with each other. In short, it allows us to enter their world and lets them show us what habitats are important.

For an in-depth look at the monitoring details, check out the Monitoring and Maintenance Report, Rainbow Bend Levee Removal and Floodplain Reconnection Project: Monitoring and Maintenance Report.

Seminario gratuito en español sobre el manejo de malas hierbas

nweedsEl Programa de Control de Malas Hierbas Nocivas del Condado de King, en colaboración con Seattle Public Utilities, está ofreciendo un seminario gratuito en español sobre el manejo de malas hierbas. Este taller es perfecto para profesionales del paisaje y el jardín, así como cualquier persona interesada en las prácticas del paisaje sostenibles y el control de malas hierbas. ¡Nos encantaría verlo allí!

Fecha: 4 de octubre de 2017
Hora: 5-8:30pm
Precio: ¡Gratis!
Cómo registrarse: Regístrese en línea
Lugar: TAF Bethaday Community Learning Space, 605 SW 108th St, Seattle WA 98146  (Cerca de las rutas de autobús 128 y 131)

TAF Bethaday Community Learning Space_map

Créditos de recertificación de licencia de plaguicidas de WSDA están en trámite. ¡Comida y bebida gratis!

Para más información, por favor comuníquese con Nate Dolton-Thornton (206-263-5766 o ndolton-thornton@kingcounty.gov) o Sasha Shaw (206-477-4824 o sasha.shaw@kingcounty.gov).

¡Gracias!

(Abajo, la misma información en inglés)

The King County Noxious Weed Control Program, in partnership with Seattle Public Utilities, is offering a free Spanish-Language Weed Management Recertification Seminar. This training is perfect for landscape and garden professionals, as well as anyone interested in sustainable landscape practices and weed control. We’d love to see you there!

Date: October 4, 2017
Time: 5-8:30pm
Price: Free!
How to sign up: Register online
Location: TAF Bethaday Community Learning Space, 605 SW 108th St, Seattle WA 98146 (Close to bus routes 128 and 131)

TAF Bethaday Community Learning Space_map

WSDA Pesticide License Recertification credits are pending. Free refreshments!

For more information, please contact Nate Dolton-Thornton (206-263-5766 or ndolton-thornton@kingcounty.gov) or Sasha Shaw (206-477-4824 or sasha.shaw@kingcounty.gov).

Thank you!

Logjams make the Cedar River unsafe for recreation, but they’re great for fish

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A cottonwood spans the Cedar River, one of many downed trees that have led to the river’s closure.

The King County Sheriff’s Office announced earlier this month that a portion of the Cedar River is closed to all in-river recreational use for the second season in a row due to numerous logjams, downed trees, hanging limbs and other blockages.

The river is closed from river mile 4.5 to river mile 13.5, a nine-mile stretch from Renton to Maple Valley. Twelve blockages – nine of them serious – make the river too dangerous for recreation, according to the Sheriff’s Office. The blockages are similar in number and severity to last year – and all are due to naturally occurring processes.

John Koon, a senior engineer in the County’s Rivers Section, recently walked the banks of the Cedar and could see why law enforcement made the decision. He saw two punctured rafts wrapped around a logjam, a sobering sight. John has been monitoring rivers in King County for more than two decades. “I don’t remember the Cedar ever having so many hazards.”

But there’s an important twist in this ongoing discussion over the state of the Cedar River. The strainers, spanners and logjams may be bad for those who want to float the Cedar, but they’re excellent for fish, including two runs – fall chinook and steelhead – that are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and protected under tribal treaty rights.

Adding to the situation is the unique nature of the Cedar, a river that brings this dilemma into focus like no other in the region. The Cedar is just the right size to be closed by a spanner and just slow enough for some of those spanners to remain in place. It’s near an urban center – and thus to people who want recreate in it, including boaters, anglers and those who like to float the river. And all that wood provides invaluable habitat to ESA-listed fish, fish that the state and tribes co-manage with an eye towards ensuring their survival and resilience.

“We’re working right now with the tribes, the state and other jurisdictions to try to figure out the best path forward with the Cedar. But there are no good models,” said Josh Baldi, director of the Water and Land Resources Division.

“How do you make a river safe for recreationalists while improving habitat for fish? We know how to do this when designing restoration projects, but it’s far trickier with natural wood recruitment. This is largely unchartered terrain.”

So why does wood in a river matter so much? Large pieces of wood trap other pieces of wood, creating complex habitat that supports salmon at several stages in their life cycle, explains Sarah McCarthy, a senior ecologist in the County’s Water and Land Resources Division.

Wood, for instance, retains gravel, which is needed for spawning. It encourages riverbed scour, which in turn creates pools where salmon can rest, find deep, cool refuge and hide from predators. Logjams slow down the flow and sometimes split a channel, creating new channels and backwaters critical to healthy salmon runs. Wood is also the basis for an aquatic food web – invertebrates live in the downed trees and logs and occasionally fall into the river, where they’re snatched up by hungry fish.

“The research is clear that wood in rivers and streams improves habitat quality,” Sarah said.

Western Washington’s rivers used to be filled with wood. But over the course of the past century or so, much of that wood was removed or prevented from falling into rivers – the result of logging and agricultural practices, navigational improvements and flood control efforts.

Those actions came with a cost. The removal of wood led to the destruction of salmon habitat and added to the steady decline of salmon in the Pacific Northwest. Today, 17 distinct salmon populations are listed as threatened or endangered under the ESA in Washington. And while wood removal was seen as a way to provide flood protection, in many instances it made the situation worse – causing faster, more unconstrained flows, erosion and channelization.

Government agencies, including King County, are now seeking a new path, trying to balance all of these competing forces in support of rivers that are healthy and resilient and that are good for both people and fish. As a result, the County routinely incorporates wood into both restoration and flood control projects, using the best science and engineering practices to do so and keeping stakeholders – including river safety advocates and recreationalists – informed throughout the process.

Earlier this month, project managers in the Water and Land Resources Division held two public meetings to discuss several current projects that will use placed wood either to improve habitat or provide flood protection.

As for the Cedar, where naturally occurring wood – not wood used in restoration or flood control projects – is making in-water recreation dangerous, Kate Akyuz, a senior environmental scientist in the Rivers Section, is working with the Sheriff’s Office, state officials, tribal biologists and others to determine a course that makes sense. It’s possible, for instance, that some of the wood could be shifted or removed, she said, noting that doing so would require the County to mitigate for that removal by creating salmon habitat elsewhere.

Josh attended one of the recent public meetings about large wood where he discussed his own love of river rafting as well as the environmental challenges at a place like the Cedar River.

“We have a lot of needs we’re trying to balance in a river that is important to many different constituents,” he said after the meeting. “Our goal is to approach this issue using both solid science and thoughtful public policy and to do what’s right for both people and fish.”

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This tree spans the Cedar at river mile 9.7.
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